For children and teenagers, there are several entertainment venues, such as amusement park Fantasilandia, the National Zoo or the Buin Zoo on the outskirts of the city. He took his own life in La Moneda, which suffered heavy damage during the September 11 putsch. The city is affected only occasionally by snowfall. Thousands of political prisoners were rounded up in the national stadium, and torture centers and makeshift prisons pockmarked Santiago. He implemented a regular street grid from the present-day Plaza de Armas. Meanwhile, high-income families moved into the foothills, now called Barrio Alto, increasing the population of Las Condes and giving rise to new communes like Vitacura and Lo Barnechea. Bandera street leads toward the building of the Santiago Stock Exchange (the Bolsa de Comercio), completed in 1917, the Club de la Unión (opened in 1925), the Universidad de Chile (1872), and toward the oldest churchhouse in the city, the San Francisco Church (constructed between 1586 and 1628), with its Marian statue of the Virgen del Socorro ("Our Lady of Help"), which was brought to Chile by Pedro de Valdivia. The system carries around 2,400,000 passengers per day. The hosts of Valdivia camped by the river in the slopes of the Tupahue hill and slowly began to interact with the Picunche people who inhabited the area. The iron-fisted military rule forced much of the artistic community out of the city. But not everyone prospered. History About Santiago. The population density in Santiago is 8,464 inhabitants/km2. In climate station of Quinta Normal (near downtown) the precipitation average is 341.8 mm, and in climate station of Tobalaba (in higher grounds near the Andes mountains) the precipitation average is 367.8 mm. The General Cemetery opened, work on the canal San Carlos was completed, and, in the south arm of the Mapocho River, known as La Cañada, the drying riverbed, used for sometime as a landfill, was turned into an avenue, now known as the Alameda de las Delicias. The railway network was extended allowing connection of the city with its nascent suburbs by a new rail ring and route to the Cajón del Maipo, while a new railway station was built in the north of the city: the Mapocho Station. The Road to Cityhood Cityhood for the town of Santiago is an enduring popular progress, which Mayor Jose "Pempe" C. Miranda turned out of the earlier dream of his predecessors. He named it after the military protector of the Spanish in their fight for conquest and the Patron Saint of Spain, Apostle James. These important works were opened permanently in 1798. It is closed for maintenance on Mondays. In the 1960s continued urban migration resulted in squatter settlements known as callampas (mushrooms, so-called because they sprang up virtually overnight) around the city's outskirts. There are 2 southbound routes. The club was founded on 24 May 1927, under the name Club Deportivo Universitario as a union of Club Náutico and Federación Universitaria. Santiago was founded by the people of Montijo and Santa Fe in the 17th century, who gathered in this place, decided to found a city that served as the starting center dispatches. Meanwhile, wealthy encomenderos (landowners) began to stamp their mark as the dominant economic and political force in the capital. During those years, railways connected the city to Valparaíso as well as regions in the north and south of Chile. The first two 100% electric buses in the history of Santiago City’s public transport began operating with an inauguration ceremony witnessed by … Both of these constructions consisted of mainly adobe and stone. I want emails from Lonely Planet with travel and product information, promotions, advertisements, third-party offers, and surveys. Santiago is the cultural, political and financial center of Chile and is home to the regional headquarters of many multinational corporations. The name Santiago goes back to the Apostle James (Saint James = Santiago) who went to this most north-western part of Spain, called by the Romans "Finis Terrae", "end of the world", to preach and convert people to Christianity. History Santiago, Santiago: See traveller reviews, candid photos, and great deals for History Santiago at Tripadvisor. However, the shrine would not be completed until some decades later. Approximately 10.4% of the population of the Metropolitan Region stated that they were atheist or agnostic, while 5.4% declared that they followed other religions. Santiago is also served by Eulogio Sánchez Airport (ICAO: SCTB), a small, privately owned general aviation airport in the commune of La Reina. Although its builders were able to complete the bridge, the piers were constantly being damaged by the river. On the southeast corner of the square stands the green cast-iron Commercial Edwards building, which was built in 1893. However, some modern buildings were also rendered uninhabitable, generating much debate about the actual implementation of mandatory earthquake standards in the modern architecture of Santiago. The cause of this was a strategy by the local indigenous Picunche to stop cultivation and retreat to more distant places. The park, open to the public, became a landmark in Santiago due to its large gardens, lakes, and carriage trails. To this other structures adopted artistic trends from Europe, as the Equestrian Club of Santiago, the head offices of the University of Chile and the Catholic University, Central Station and the Mapocho Station, Mercado Central, join the National Library, Museum of Fine Arts and the Barrio París-Londres, among others. The Metro was expanded considerably, lines were extended and three new lines were built between 1997 and 2006 in the southeastern sector. North of the Plaza de Armas ("Square of Arms," where the colonial militia was mustered) are the Paseo Puente, the Santo Domingo Church (1771), and the Central Market (Mercado Central), an ornamental iron building. Criterion (vi): Santiago de Compostela is associated with one of the major themes of medieval history. History. Extant buildings include the Casa Colorada (1769), the San Francisco Church (1586), and Posada del Corregidor (1750). Valdivia later summoned the chiefs of the area to a parliament, where he explained his intention to found a city on behalf of the king Carlos I of Spain, which would be the capital of his governorship of Nueva Extremadura. At the Mapocho river's southern side, the Parque Forestal was created and new buildings such as the Museum of Fine Arts, the Barros Arana public boarding school and the National Library were opened. [42], According to data collected in the 2002 census by the National Institute of Statistics, the Santiago metropolitan area population reached 5,428,590 inhabitants, equivalent to 35.9% of the national total and 89.6% of total regional inhabitants. With the start of the transition to democracy in 1990, the city of Santiago had surpassed three million inhabitants, with the majority living in the south: La Florida was the most populous area, followed by Puente Alto and Maipú. [66] It was the first FIA sanctioned race in the country. Hotel in City-Centre, Santiago de Compostela. It has faced a number of problems since its launch. A new redevelopment of the Alameda Avenue turned it into the main road of the city. In 1865, the census reported 115,337 inhabitants. we use cookies to improve your experience on our website. The city held a round of the all-electric FIA Formula E Championship on 3 February 2018, on a temporary street circuit incorporating the Plaza Baquedano and Parque Forestal. Due to Santiago's location on the Pacific Ring of Fire at the boundary of the Nazca and South American plates, it experiences a significant amount of tectonic activity. [31] In the 1990s air pollution fell by about one-third, but there has been little progress since 2000. In communes such as Santiago Centro and Independencia, according to 2017 census, 1/3 of residents is a Latin American immigrant (28% and 31% of the population of these communes, respectively). The name of "Santiago" originates in the name chosen by the Spanish conqueror, Pedro de Valdivia, when founded the city in 1541. One of the oldest settlements in Panama, the city flourished in the colonial era, and many fine old buildings remain. Valparaíso, which had hitherto been the economic center of the country slowly lost prominence at the expense of the capital. History About Santiago. [6] In an effort to transform Santiago, Vicuña Mackenna began construction of the Camino de Cintura, a road surrounding the entire city. [18], Temperatures vary throughout the year from an average of 20 °C (68 °F) in January to 8 °C (46 °F) in June and July. Each solar (quarter block) was given to the settlers, who built houses of mud and straw. The area was inhabited by the Picunche Indians, who were placed under the rule of the Spanish settlers. The Costanera Center was completed in 2009, and includes housing, shopping, and entertainment venues. Two underground lines (Line 4 and 4A) and an extension of Line 2 were inaugurated in 2005 and 2006, while an extension of Line 5 was inaugurated in 2011. The Congress was deposed under the military dictatorship (1973–89) of Augusto Pinochet, and after the dictatorship was newly constituted on 11 March 1990, in Valparaíso. Finally, the Edificio Diego Portales was constructed in 1972. Santiago's cityscape is shaped by several stand-alone hills and the fast-flowing Mapocho River, lined by parks such as Parque Forestal and Balmaceda Park. 543 metres above sea level, on the skirts of the Andes, Santiago is 140 square kilometres in extension. Santiago is Chile's retail capital. In the case of buses, the system underwent a major reform in the early 1990s. [3], There is an extensive network of bicycle trails in the city, especially in the Providencia commune. [55] The proposed Santiago–Valparaíso railway line would connect Santiago with Valparaíso in 45 minutes, and expansions of the commuter rail network to Melipilla and Batuco are under discussion. Most of the museums are located in the historic city center, occupying the old buildings of colonial origin, such as with the National History Museum, which is located in the Palacio de la Real Audiencia. Most of the city lies between 500–650 m (1,640–2,133 ft) above mean sea level. Colo-Colo, founded on 19 April 1925, has a long tradition, and has played continuously in the highest league since the establishment of the first Chilean league in 1933. A series of disasters impeded the development of the city during the 16th and 17th centuries: an earthquake, a 1575 smallpox epidemic, in 1590, 1608, and 1618, the Mapocho River floods, and, finally, the earthquake of 13 May 1647, which killed over 600 people and affected more than 5,000 others. Furthermore, in the periphery villas were built various partners from various organizations of the time. Santiago's international airport, in the west, lies at an altitude of 460 m (1,509 ft). Santiago, officially the City of Santiago (Ilocano: Siudad ti Santiago; Ibanag: Siudad nat Santiago; Gaddang: Siudad na Santiago; Tagalog: Lungsod ng Santiago), is a 1st class independent component city in the province of Isabela, Philippines.According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 134,830 people. The main road is the Avenida Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, better known as Alameda Avenue, which runs northeast and southwest. Santiago was founded in 1541 by a small band of Spanish conquistadors. In the 2010 admission process, approximately 48% of the students who achieved the best score in the Prueba de Selección Universitaria matriculated in the UC.[73]. A great part of the history of Chile has been written at the Plaza de Armas (Main Square) and its surrounding buildings. The city, which became the capital of the new nation, was threatened by various events, especially the nearby military actions. Terminal La Cisterna: located in Metro station "La Cisterna." [40][41] However, rabies is practically non-existent in Chile. Meanwhile, a strong earthquake struck the city on 3 March 1985. The city is home to numerous universities, colleges, research institutions, and libraries. Tourist Spots. Taxicabs are common in Santiago and are painted black with yellow roofs and have orange license plates. The 2023 Pan American Games will be held in Santiago. The growth of the previous decades led to an unprecedented population explosion starting in 1929. According to certain archaeological investigations, it is believed that the first human groups reached the Santiago basin in the 10th millennium BC. The location was chosen for its proximity to Cerro Santa Lucía (high ground that could be defended) and the Mapocho River as well as the temperate climate and fertile ground. [citation needed], The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Santiago - to and from work, for example - on a weekday is 84 min. [33], A final major source of Santiago air pollution, one that continues year-round, is the smelter of the El Teniente copper mine. The founders were students of the University of Chile. The city has a varying elevation, gradually increasing from 400 m (1,312 ft) in the western areas to more than 700 m (2,297 ft) in the eastern areas. A new extension to Maipú was inaugurated in 2011, at which point the metropolitan railway had a total length of 105 km. Universidad Católica has 13 national titles, making it the third most successful football club in the country. Founded in 1541 by the Spanish conquistador Pedro de Valdivia, Santiago has been the capital city of Chile since colonial times. In the airport area of Pudahuel, mean rainfall is 276.9 mm (10.90 in) per year, about 80% of which occurs during the winter months (May to September), varying between 50 and 80 mm (1.97 and 3.15 in) of rainfall during these months. The 1992 census showed that Santiago had become the country's most populous municipality with 328,881 inhabitants. The History of the Ways to Santiago The construction of the Romanesque cathedral began in 1078 and started a golden age for the pilgrimage to Santiago. EFE provides suburban rail service under the brandname of Metrotren. [20], Santiago's location within a watershed is one of the most important factors determining the climate of the city. It consists of fourteen different departments. Santiago, capital of Chile. Formerly known as Pueblo de Carig during the time of the … This created urban sprawl, especially in La Florida, with the city reaching 40 619 ha in size in the early 1990s. Santiago is home to some of Chile's most successful football clubs. Learn about the history of Real Madrid including the best moments and players of each decade along with all the details about each season on the Official Website. During recent decades, urban growth has outgrown the boundaries of the city, expanding to the east up the slopes of the Andean Precordillera. The royal government lasted until 1817, when the Army of the Andes secured victory in battle of Chacabuco, reinstating the patriot government in Santiago. Near the year 800 settled in the region of the territory of Santiago which is the capital city of Chile different native communities that chose the zone of the river Mapocho to settle down. [51] In January 2010, Cencosud announced the restart of the project, and this was taken generally as a symbol of the country's success over the global financial crisis. Regulation of the growth only began to be implemented during the 1960s with the creation of various development plans for Greater Santiago, a concept that reflected the new reality of a much larger city. In other parts of the city there are some museums such as the Aeronautical Museum in Cerrillos, Museum of Tajamares in Providence and the Museo Interactivo Mirador in La Granja. This line, inaugurated in 2017, serves 8 million people per year, with 12 trains serving 10 stations with a frequency of 6 minutes during rush hours, and 12 during the rest of the time. On 17 April 1839, after Chile's independence from the Kingdom of Spain, it was renamed the Universidad de Chile, and reopened on 17 September 1843. Parque Araucano in Las Condes adjacent to the Parque Arauco shopping mall contains 30 hectares of gardens. Finally, the Américo Vespucio Avenue acts as a ring road. The Chilean executive and judiciary are located in Santiago, but Congress meets mostly in nearby Valparaíso. Let’s start around the XVI century: The Plaza de Armas (main square) is still in the same place as when the city was founded in 1541. By the mid-19th century, thanks in part to soaring exports triggered by the Californian gold rush, the capital swelled to more than 100, 000 inhabitants. The airport is located in the western commune of Pudahuel. 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