There are major reasons for applying the listening-first approach. The second chapter focuses more on how pupils participate in classroom talk. Section 1.1 - Children need direct guidance and structured practice in speaking and listening. The amount of listening, speaking, reading and writing involved to complete the problem posed by the task is dictated by the task itself; however, most complex (multi step) real-life tasks that take learners into the world outside the classroom will utilize all four skills. The Importance of Speaking and Listening in the Primary Classroom - Reflecting on Experience. In the classroom we must remember that listening is a ‘give and take policy’ between the teachers and learners. "I can let you borrow one. Talk is difficult to assess because it is context dependent and ephemeral, but good opportunities for assessment occur regularly, especially in 'talk-focused' classrooms where both teacher and children are aware of the importance of speaking and listening for learning. This is teaching and learning which is essentially based on the thoughtful questions, negotiation and discussion which generate reasoned debate amongst teachers and learners. In fact, at times teachers are evaluated for their multitasking ability. That is, speaking and listening is central to forming relationships, and acting as cognitive tools for learning (Vygotsky, 1978). An activity: What makes a good discussion? This is obvious. Right now I feel like you are irritated at me because you don't have a pencil. All the papers in this publication merit discussion with students. Throughout the curriculum there is a strong emphasis on enabling children to use language to work together effectively. Look at the person, and suspend other things you are doing. That person really understands the importance of listening. It is important to help them see that by giving direct attention to the development of children's spoken language skills, they will help the process of teaching and learning become more effective throughout the curriculum. 13, Theosophical Society in the Philippines, 1995, Quezon City, Philippines. Student teachers need to see how they almost inevitably converge on other teachers' style and generate the conventional patterns of classroom talk. Students use speaking and listening to solve problems, speculate, share ideas, make decisions and reflect on what is important. By noting this, they can begin to consider what effects this has on pupil participation in class. Since research shows that feeling connected is necessary for students' motivation to learn, showing that teachers listen is important not only as a matter of kindness but also as a motivational strategy. This resource is adapted from an Initiatl Teacher Education - English resource available: http://www.ite.org.uk/ite_topics/speaking_listening/001.html, Lyn Dawes When you don't look at me, I feel like you are mad. Why should we teach speaking skills in the classroom? If teachers are to be able to help children develop their skills in speaking and listening, they will have to assess the ways that children talk, for example when they are working together in a group. It will encourage students to identify dialogue when they encounter it, and to ensure that they organise their classrooms so that dialogue is how learning proceeds. For example, in the following dialogue, Para provides feedback to a student by guessing the student's implied message and then asking for confirmation. Teachers may find it useful to explore some of the ORBIT resources including, Section 4.1 - Teachers need the confidence to teach speaking and listening. Hand Signals: Using hand signals can be a great way to help students communicate with each other in a whole group discussion. Listening – Is tuning into a sound, recognizing its importance and interpreting the information in the brain. Students reading this paper can be asked to analyse their own teaching of mathematics in a whole class or small group context, perhaps tape recording part of their session then attending carefully to what the children actually say. It also gives a range of further reading and practical suggestions for encouraging dialogic teaching. While many realise that children need instruction in literacy and numeracy, student teachers may not realise that spoken language skills can, and should, be directly taught to children. Figure 2 contains grade-level expectations for this standard. When a teacher listens to the students, firstly it means students get the scope to practice speaking and secondly they will be ready to listen to that teacher. When students speak in front of a group in this type of informal setting, it prepares them for future endeavors in public speaking. By understanding and questioning what generally happens, students can begin to construct the kind of dialogues that they can feel confident have most educational value. Section 3.1 - Teachers should learn how to assess the quality of children's talk. Attention – Children may be able to hear and listen to sounds and voices, but they also need to be able to do this for a sustained period of time. The importance of speaking and listening is hardly a revelation. Consequently, in addition to really listening to students, teachers must also show they are really listening. Academic discourse has always been part of the classroom. But, I want to tell you a better way to get one. Though m any studies approved the considerable importance of listening skills on speaking … You seem like you want to run away because you keep moving around. Professor of Education, Fellow of Hughes Hall Editor, International Journal of Educational Research University of Cambridge. A main concern for assessment is to consider how well the talk suits the kind of event in which children are participating. Locating the Square. Because most people are occasionally guilty of sending messages that interfere with communication, it should be especially helpful to review "Gordon's 12 Roadblocks to Communication.". The first of these chapters describes and exemplify the different ways teachers talk to pupils: 'direct elicitations', 'cued elicitations', 'reformulations' and so on. Then ask: Section 2.1 - Raising student teachers' awareness of the structure of teacher-pupil talk in classrooms and how to assess its quality. C Clearly, teaching students how to be active listener should be a part of your class curriculum. "Self-Transformation Series: Active Listening." Maybe you could ask a question instea… Student teachers can be encouraged to record and transcribe their own dialogues with pupils and consider which of these teaching techniques they have used and to what purpose. This resource is licenced under an Open Government Licence (OGL). The aim of this paper is to show the importance of listening and speaking skills in the classroom in order to get a perfect acquisition of the second language. At the same time, the listener improves their ability to focus on a speaker and to think about implied meanings. Speaking and listening standards are part of the Common Core Language Arts Standards for each grade. An effective way to demonstrate teacher attentiveness is to use active listening, a technique that can be used for: By using active listening with students, teachers build the relationship of trust and caring that is essential to student motivation. It is therefore very important that student teachers become aware of this and learn how to guide children's spoken language development. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) promote the academic reasons for providing ample opportunities for students to take part in a variety of rich, structured conversations in order to build a foundation for college and career readiness. The striving for effective dialogue and learning through talk should be a continuous feature of classroom life. It is also possible to apply active learning for problem behaviors for a better classroom environment. Be aware of your own feelings and existing opinions. Speech and communication lies at the heart of classroom practice. We have also found the following resources useful for working with student teachers on this topic: This journal article discusses the issue of using speaking and listening in science, to elicit and address children's misconceptions, to help them articulate their ideas. Mercer, N., Dawes, L., Wegerif, R., & Sams, C. (2004). They should work to create the necessary condition for students to learn effectively and reach the desired outcome. They need to learn to evaluate talk and subsequently use their decisions to inform planning of further speaking and listening activities. The speaker also knows the listener is really paying attention. "I need a pencil," the slouching boy said quietly, as he looked right past me. Social relations in the classroom depend on talk, and students’ confidence and attitudes to learning are affected by friendships and positive interaction. Readers could also refer to the page Dialogic Teaching for further links and description. A useful awareness-raising activity is to ask the following question: if you were in a classroom and overheard a group of children who were working together having what you would consider a good, productive discussion, what exactly would they be doing, and what would you hear? The CCSS suggest that speaking and listening be planned as part of a whole class, in small groups, and with a partner. By foregrounding talk, it becomes possible to evaluate at what point mathematical concepts are understood – or not. T We will now focus on the importance of building active listening skills in the classroom. Through refining the listener's interpretation of the student's statements, the speaker gains greater insight into their own feelings and may reap the benefits of catharsis. Avoid distractions. Be sincerely interested in what the other person is talking about. Read this English Research Paper and over 89,000 other research documents. This is the situation students need to be able to both recognise and create. They also gain from guidance about how to communicate effectively and from taking part in structured activities for practising communicating (including, crucially, group interactions with light supervision from a teacher). Gordon Training International, Solana Beach, California. Performing the steps effectively depends on giving appropriate feedback and sending appropriate verbal and non-verbal signals. Is this because their training did not include any examination of the structures of classroom talk – or because even if it did, the practical value of such an examination was not made clear? use varied lessons (in English, the Speaking and Listening curriculum) as a basis for raising children's awareness about how talk can be used most effectively to share ideas, negotiate thinking, challenge and agree, build relationships and generally get things done This means more than the capacity to provide brief answers to questions in whole class settings. That contribution is available on the wiki: The educational value of dialogic talk in whole-class dialogue. A Rationale for Classroom Listening and Speaking Instruction Monica Gordon Pershey Listening and speaking are challenging classroom objectives for many language arts teach­ ers. This is the first and most basic stage of the listening process: the act of actually absorbing the information being expressed to you, whether verbally or non-verbally. For some English language learners (ELLs), speaking and listening may be much easier than reading and writing. School may provide the only opportunity many children have for acquiring some extremely important speaking, listening and thinking skills. It is easy to perform routine tasks while listening to students. number shows that listening skills don’t have significant importance on speaking skills. Oral communication skills are of paramount importance both within the classroom and society (Henderson, n.d). Research Associate at the University of Cambridge’s Faculty of Education, Neil Mercer Speaking and listening in the classroom serve both social and educative purposes. He stood, seemingly agitated, shifting from foot to foot. Mercer, N., Wegerif, R. and Dawes, L. (1999) 'Children's talk and the development of reasoning in the classroom', British Educational Research Journal, 25, 1, 95-111. Once a collaborative, articulate atmosphere is established, learning objectives for speaking and listening can (and should) inform work in curriculum area. Not all communication is done through speech, and not all listening is done with ears.No matter how you’re communicating with another person, the key at this stage is to pay attention. They also learn to respond appropriately to others, thinking about what has been said and the language used.'. Focus all of your energy on them, by following these three simple tips: 1. This activity is similar to the describing the photo activity, but with this activity, … ", The Definition of Listening and How to Do It Well, Choice Motivates Students When Rewards and Punishment Don't Work, 7 Reading Strategies and Activities for Elementary Students, 8 Motivational Strategies and the Proverbs that Support Them, Gradual Release of Responsibility Creates Independent Learners, 5 Social Emotional Competencies All Students Need, 7 Ways to Take Control of Your Classroom to Reduce Student Misbehavior, Pros and Cons to Flexible Grouping in Middle and High School, M.Ed., Curriculum and Instruction, University of Florida, focusing on the personal characteristics of the speaker or their poor delivery, which prevents understanding. Listening requires the fundamental skill of focusing attention on the speaker to be able to hear and understand what the speaker is saying. There are of course some aspects of evaluating children's talk where great sensitivity is needed. (That is, describe the observable features of the children's talk, such as 'asking each other questions'.). You give your students variety, and break from the monotony which can result in loss of their interest. It is the predominant way in which teachers provide instruction and support to their students and is central to how most students engage with the curriculum. Children need more of the kind of interaction which is generated by what Robin Alexander calls 'dialogic teaching' (see his publication listed below), use varied lessons (in English, the Speaking and Listening curriculum) as a basis for raising children's awareness about how talk can be used most effectively to share ideas, negotiate thinking, challenge and agree, build relationships and generally get things done. Their original research was reported in. In the early history of education, teachers talked for most of the instructional day while students were quiet and completed their assigned tasks. Speaking skills require students to take turns, speak confidently, stay on topic, and speak with clarity. Active listening is easiest when there are fewer distractions. Teacher-led dialogue and group-based activities with minimal teacher intervention are both very important for children's learning. Students who are in tune with class conversations are equipped to partake in the discussions. Andrea Raiker shows how a mismatch between what a teacher says ( e.g. 7.2 - A session template for making your own sessions, 8.2 - A workshop for OER4Schools programme facilitators, 8.3 - OER4Schools Taster Session - eLA 2013, 8.6 - Faculty of Education Workshop May 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike or Attribution-NonCommercial, For a useful discussion of the educational functions of IRF exchanges, see Chapter 5 of : Wells, G. (1999), assess children's language skills (see below), engage children in dialogues in which they are encouraged to develop and use spoken language skills. Mercer, Wegerif & Dawes, 1999; Mercer, Dawes, Wegerif & Sams, 2004 – see below). But research shows that it is listening — really listening — to students that is critical to the student/teacher relationship. Our students have been oral language users since their first year of life. However, unless teachers appear to be completely focused on the student speaking, he or she is apt to think the teacher doesn't care about what's being said, or about them. For the teaching of English to be successful, the four skills, reading, listening, speaking and writing, should be … The amount and quality of talk in classrooms is tied directly to student achievement. Sinclair and Coulthard's research has been the basis for extended debates about whether or not teachers should ask so many questions to which they already know the answer; and further debate about the range of uses and purposes of IRF in working classrooms. Criteria are likely to be different, depending on whether they are talking in a group, making a presentation to the class, engaged in a drama-related activity, discussing ideas in citizenship, and so on. Taking varied roles in groups gives them opportunities to contribute to situations with different demands. There is an emphasis on students developing speaking and listening skills in classrooms. "The Roadblocks to Communication." By analysing the impact of talk on learning in the core subject of mathematics, Andrea Raiker emphasises the fundamental nature of good oral language development for children. Listening, on the other hand, is purposeful and focused rather than accidental. As a way to complement 5 classroom learning, or as a method of self-study, focused and active listening is extremely important. And in the classroom, teachers often understand that listening is an important skill to have but rarely teach it. Despite all this, it seems that many teachers (even those who have qualified in recent decades) have not heard of it. They include being tuned in to the speaker’s nonverbal behavior and emotions, and the deeper meanings of what they say. A teacher's professional development (and, indeed, the development of members of any profession) should involve the gaining of critical insights into professional practice – to learn to see behind the ordinary, the taken for granted, and to question the effectiveness of what is normally done. However, across all subject areas, requirements for the ability to talk, and write effectively in the genre of that subject is highlighted. They read a range of texts and respond to different layers of meaning in them. Despite references to the development of children's language skills, National Curriculum guidance does not make it clear that such direct teaching may often be required. Research suggests that listening is prerequisite to other language skills, speaking, reading, and writing, and listening should be the primary skill to be acquired in learning a new language. Although the feedback step is at the heart of active listening, take each of the following steps to be effective with this technique: These steps, paraphrased from "The Self-Transformation Series, Issue no. It provides an introduction to the idea of 'learning to talk, talking to learn' and a philosophy of dialogic teaching. Listening comprehension sets a foundation for the future acquisition of speaking. This is described as an Initiation-Response-Feedback exchange, or IRF. ... yet many English teachers still spend the majority of class time on reading and writing practice almost ignoring speaking and listening skills. Good listening helps students of all levels in acquiring vocabulary, retaining new knowledge, understanding the requirements of tasks, and developing interpersonal skills. There is nothing wrong with the use of IRFs by teachers, but question-and-answer routines can be used both productively and unproductively. They explore the use of language in literary and nonliterary texts and learn how language works. Acknowledging the major role speaking and listening play inside and outside of schoo… By employing active listening skills in conferences with students or their parents, we promote mutual understanding and successful outcomes. They learn to use language as a tool for thinking, collectively and alone. The subtitle of this text is 'Rethinking classroom talk'. 'Pupils learn to change the way they speak and write to suit different situations, purposes and audiences. Yet many teachers are still locked into the "Initiation-Response-Evaluation" (IRE) pattern of talk. Listen not merely to the words, but the feeling content. Students reading this article can be asked to discuss the nature and purpose of IRF sequences; the importance of sensitive dialogue between teacher and pupil; the child's use of talk for thinking aloud with others, and what the teacher can find out from hearing such talk. In addition to the academic, social, and motivational benefits of literature discussions, the Common Core State Standards (NGA & CCSSO 2010) reinforce the importance of teachers devoting time to enhancing children’s speaking and listening skills. A striking insight provided by classroom research is that much talk between teachers and their pupils has the following pattern: a teacher's question, a pupil's response, and then an evaluative comment by the teacher. There is an emphasis on students developing speaking and listening skills in classrooms. Although some people recommend giving feedback with a statement rather than a question, the objective remains the same: to clarify either the factual and/or emotional content of the message. Speaking & Listening Grades 3/4/5.1.B: Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). My goal is to examine what applied linguistics research and theory says about the nature of listening and speaking skills, and then to explore what the implications are for classroom … Section 2.2 - Raising awareness of the structure of teacher-pupil talk in classrooms and how to assess its quality. Approaches to the teaching of listening and speaking will be explored here in the light of the kinds of issues discussed above. British Educational Research Journal, 30, 3, 367-385. This is not an example of the work written by professional essay writers. Teachers should explore the resources on the (freely available) Thinking Together website www.thinkingtogether.educ.cam.ac.uk/resources/. There seems to be an implicit belief that the subtle skills of active listening and reasoned speaking will develop simply through children's involvement in whole class and small group dialogues. Student teachers will need to appreciate the distinction between on the one hand using an assessment to help a child to become more involved in learning conversations, or to develop their presentation skills, and on the other trying to alter a child's accent or to ban the use of dialect in the classroom simply because it 'sounds wrong'. 'cuboid' , 'repeated addition') and what a child thinks can create barriers to learning. It is important to make your students look forward to every class, and your presentation skills have a lot to do with this. Neil Mercer's contribution clarifies the importance of talk for thinking, making clear the link between learning new, rational ways to talk and developing a more rational approach to problems and new ideas. design pair and group activities based on interesting problem-solving tasks or creative endeavours which will stretch children's communication skills and help them practice what they are learning about language as a tool for communicating. Students interact with the teacher and one another when they offer thoughts, questions and ideas. Developing Higher Order Scientific Enquiry Skills, Group Talk - Benefits for Science Teaching, Pedagogy and ICT a Review of the Literature, Purposes and characteristics of whole-class dialogue, Teaching Learning Developing Approaches to CPD, Teaching Learning and Whole School Improvement, The educational value of dialogic talk in whole-class dialogue, The impact of enquiry-based science teaching on students' attitudes and achievement, Using Digital Video in Professional Development, http://www.ite.org.uk/ite_topics/speaking_listening/001.html, www.thinkingtogether.educ.cam.ac.uk/resources/, Use of Video to Support Professional Development, Changing KS3 Questions for Engaging Assessment, http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/6062/1/6111_new_perspec_in_spoken_eng_class_room.pdf, http://oer.educ.cam.ac.uk/w/index.php?title=The_Importance_of_Speaking_and_Listening&oldid=29405, 0.4 - An introduction to facilitating the OER4Schools programme, Unit 1 - Introduction to interactive teaching and the use of ICT, 1.1 - What is interactive teaching? if 'good discussions' are common in classrooms (research has shown they are not), if they are effective users of language in such situations, if they were ever taught how to engage in such discussions in school, how they think children might best be helped to develop good discussion skills; and. The ways people talk can be closely related to their identities, and student teachers may rightly worry about making evaluations of some aspects of a child's way of speaking such as their accent. The text provides food for thought. 7.1 - List of concepts, methods and techniques for reference. In the feedback step, the listener summarizes or paraphrases the speaker's literal and implied message. Important Presentation Skills to Learn as a Teacher. It has been central to learning since the time of the ancient Greeks, when rhetoric was considered … Teachers should set high standards for an ESL classroom. you might also compare their list of the features of a good discussion with the definition of Exploratory Talk (see above). Home — Essay Samples — Education — Listening — The Importance of Obtaining Great Listening Skills in Classroom This essay has been submitted by a student. This will include learning how to: Section 1.2 - Children need direct guidance and structured practice in speaking and listening. However, becoming skilled in active listening requires considerable practice after the purpose and steps are thoroughly explained and examples are analyzed. Listening Focused, concentrated attention for the purpose of understanding the meanings expressed by a speaker., at its best, is active, focused, concentrated attention for the purpose of understanding the meanings expressed by a speaker. Teachers have long understood the importance of using language to transmit ideas. A JISC OER 3 project at the Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge. One reason for both these developments is that recent research has shown the importance of the link between spoken language, learning and cognitive development (e.g. An introduction to the interactive Zambian classroom, 1.2 - Introduction to interactive teaching with ICT, Unit 2 - Whole class dialogue and effective questioning, 2.1 - Introduction to whole class dialogue and effective questioning, 3.1 - Group work: Same task and different tasks group work, 3.2 - When to use group work and how to manage it, 3.3 - Mixed pace group work with and without ICT, 3.4 - Talking points and effective group work, Unit 4 - Assessment for learning and lesson pacing, 4.1 - Introduction to Assessment for Learning, 4.2 - Learning objectives and success criteria, Unit 5 - Enquiry-based learning and project work, 5.1 - Introduction to enquiry-based learning, 5.2 - Starting the enquiry-based learning process, 5.3 - Collecting and interpreting information: Part one, 5.4 - Collecting and interpreting information: Part two, 6.1 - Programme review and action research. 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