No one here seems to know how to fix it.” His last letter, dated March 8, said: “Just over three weeks to go if all goes well. It would become the centrepiece of a monument to the Windrush Generation and their descendants. In 1948, Britain was recovering from the ravages of war. When did the British Government look to the British colonies for labourers? A replica of the deck of the Empire Windrush created as part of the Windrush Garden at Chelsea Flower Show in 2018. June 22, 1948 - The Empire Windrush passenger ship docked at Tilbury from Jamaica. Photograph by Alamy / Contraband Collection Mystery of missing WWII tug Empire Wold solved 74 years on as it is found off Iceland. This partly explains why he favours historical wrecks over treasure-laden wrecks. David L. Mearns, one of the world’s most experienced and successful deep-sea shipwreck hunters, has agreed to lead the search for the wreck of the Empire Windrush and the recovery of the ship’s stern anchor for it to become the centrepiece of a national monument to the Windrush Generation. Air view, nearer shot burning 'Empire Windrush', off Algiers (2 shots). The ship, originally known as MV Monte Rosa, was a German cruise ship that had been used as a troop transporter during the Second World War. Monte Cervantes, Monte Olivia, Monte Pascoal (pictured), Monte Rosa and Monte Sarmiento were sisterships and were all sunk. On November 3 he wrote: “Had a fire on the ship just after leaving Hongkong, which caused some amusement.” On January 29 he wrote : “No 4 generator has blown its top again. The Empire Windrush was a ship that is an important part of the history of multiracialism in the United Kingdom. In March 1954, on her way back to the UK, a fire broke out killing four engine crew members. The wreck of the Empire Windrush. Named the Windrush generation after British ship the Empire Windrush - which arrived at Tilbury Docks in Essex carrying 492 Caribbean passengers in 1948 - an … “I know I can find the ship, but the moral authority rests with them. wreck, wreck database. The Empire Windrush's voyage from the Caribbean to Tilbury took place in 1948. Many were victims of racist attitudes and discrimination in employment, forced to accept jobs well below the entitlement of their qualifications or that occupied unsociable shifts. Mearns says he’s “99 per cent positive” he has located the final resting place of the Athenia. He is no stranger to government records offices such as the National Archives in London and the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, D.C. Monte Rosa. Empire Windrush One misty morning in June 1948 a former German cruise boat, the Empire Windrush, steamed up the Thames to the Tilbury Dock, London, where she disembarked some 500 hopeful settlers from Kingston, Jamaica: 492 was the official figure, but there were several stowaways as well. As for the Empire Windrush, she caught fire and sank in the Mediterranean in 1954 on the way home from Japan, but all her passengers, including recovering wounded from Korea, were saved. Not all branches of the media were as welcoming, and many immigrants faced hardship and discrimination on arrival. Nicholas Hellen, Social Affairs Editor. They were invited by Britain to assist with post-war reconstruction. We all did.“, Video: Wreckage of WWII Aircraft Carrier U.S.S. Extracts from the letters are now in the possession of Mrs E M Braddock, M.P. The wreck still lies 2600 metres below the surface of the sea. A small remotely operated vehicle (ROV) on a tether, similar to that used by Mearns in his underwater excavations. In his 2017 book, The Shipwreck Hunter, he describes his motivation: “When deciding what shipwrecks are worth pursuing, I specifically look for… human stories hiding within the overall drama of the shipwreck itself.”. HMT Empire Windrush, originally MV Monte Rosa, was a passenger liner and cruise ship launched in Germany in 1930. On the ship’s deck, there must be a strong platform with cables and winches from which the sonar equipment and the ROVs can be launched and towed. At first, she was used to transport German troops from country to country but was then taken over by the British Army to carry British soldiers. The situation was worsened when it emerged the disembarkation cards of thousands of migrants from the 1950s and 1960s â€“ potential evidence of arrival – were destroyed by the Home Office in 2010. for Exchange, Liverpool, who said last night that she will put down these questions to the Minister of Transport on Wednesday: What reports were made to you about engine trouble in the ship and what action was taken; when was the last occasion when fire was reported aboard the ship; and will the relatives of the four men killed receive compensation? 5 April 1954: A crew member who died when the vessel caught fire and sank in the Mediterranean had expressed his concerns in letters to his father, Last modified on Thu 26 Mar 2020 14.21 GMT. 36 square nautical miles is a small area. The vessel is located in a bay off Reykjavik and an examination finds it … The Germans The Spanish The British The Americans 2. Malgré avoir payé 100 £ pour un billet aller simple sur le MV Empire Windrush - et les autres vaisseaux qui devaient suivre dans son sillage métaphorique - les 492 personnes arrivant à Tilbury, en Angleterre, découvrirent que leur voyage n'était pas encore terminé. Under a 2012 policy employers, landlords and financial institutions had been encouraged to create what then-Home Secretary Theresa May described as a 'hostile environment' for those attempting to live in the UK illegally. HMT Empire Windrush arrives at the Port of Tilbury on the River Thames on 22 June, 1948. Now there’s a new chapter in the Windrush story. Theresa May, as Prime Minister in 2018, apologised for the treatment of Windrush migrants – but many remain aggrieved by the government's betrayal of their citizenship. Nicholas Hellen, Social Affairs Editor . Built in 1930 by builders Blohm & Voss, it was originally a German liner named the M.V. Tick one. During the 1930s, she operated as a German cruise ship under the name Monte Rosa.During World War II, she was operated by the German navy as a troopship.She was acquired by the United Kingdom as a prize of war at the end of the war and renamed Empire Windrush. Personal records are also enormously helpful. The 'first wave' and subsequent arrivals up to 1971 became known as the Windrush generation. Monte Cervantes, Monte Olivia, Monte Pascoal (pictured), Monte Rosa and Monte Sarmiento were sisterships and were all sunk. She arrived at Tilbury on 22 June 1948, carrying 492 passengers from Jamaica who wanted to start a new life in the UK. The Empire Windrush, carrying some 500 settlers from Jamaica, arrived at Tilbury Dock on 22 June 1948. She was then renamed Empire Windrush. They are named after the Empire Windrush, a cruise ship which brought one of the first large groups of West Indian immigrants to the United Kingdom in 1948. Here’s the text from their appeal: Monument for Windrush Generation – Anchors of HMT Empire Windrush. (Sunken treasure is further complicated by UNESCO regulations and opposition from archaeologists.) The eighth engineer, Mr Leslie Pendleton, aged 21, of Haworth Street, Bootle, Lancashire, was one of the men killed. Citizens unable to prove legitimate citizenship found their rights eroded. Mearns, who runs a Sussex-based shipwreck recovery service called Blue Water Recoveries, is confident he has narrowed down the position of the wreck to a search area of just 36 square nautical miles. As National Socialism began to take root in Germany, it was recruited as a propaganda vessel to showcase the ideology of Nazism, with cruises to Scandinavia and the Mediterranean. As the migrants' contribution to the economy began to become evident, attitudes began to change – with some employers, including the NHS, recruiting proactively and directly from the Caribbean. Empire Windrush packed with West Indian immigrants on arrival at the Port of Tilbury on the River Thames on 22 June 1948. The Windrush 70th Anniversary celebrates the pioneering, Windrush generation that came to Britain. This event is often cited as the start of the postwar immigration boom that was to change British society forever. Pictures - Empire Windrush MV [+1954], wreck, wreck database. Tick one. The Chief went to see the Old Man but it was decided to carry on. “I’ve been on some real dogs,” he says of his early outings. Operating complex machinery, often miles out at sea, is always a risky business. Once he has a reasonable search area, it’s then time to mobilise a vessel and all the various equipment. The Empire Windrush in dock at Southampton, 1954. The British Government tried to encourage immigration to members of the British Empire by offering cheap travel to anyone who wanted to come and work in the UK. The burned-out hulk of Empire Windrush was taken in tow by the Bay-class anti-aircraft frigate HMS Enard Bay of the Royal Navy's Mediterranean Fleet, 32 miles northwest of Cape Caxine. HMT Empire Windrush, originally MV Monte Rosa, was a passenger liner and cruise ship launched in Germany in 1930. Photograph: Daily Herald Archive/Getty Images. Then in October 1942, the ship that would become the Empire Windrush was one of two carrying Jews deported from Nazi-occupied Norway to Hamburg – from where they were transported to the gates of Auschwitz, and murdered. The Empire Windrush was an ex-troop ship on which immigrants from the West Indies travelled to Britain in the 1940s. Efforts are under way to find the wreck of the Empire Windrush, which sank in the Mediterranean in 1954. The more important wrecks include HMS Hood, the Royal Navy battlecruiser sunk by the German battleship Bismarck; Esmeralda, a Portuguese carrack that came to rest off the coast of Oman in 1503; and MV Lucona, a motor vessel sabotaged with a time bomb as part of an insurance fraud. “The stuff of World War II movies like The Great Escape,” is how Mearns describes it. Between 1945 and 1948 the Empire Windrush was used as a Navy transport, repatriating British soldiers home from former theatres of war such as India and Greece. A government ruling in 1971 had entitled any Commonwealth citizen currently living in Britain indefinite leave to remain â€“ in short granting rightful citizenship to those who had arrived and settled as part of the Windrush generation. There’s a crowdfunder to create a London monument from the Empire Windrush’s anchor. Related content. Empire Windrush passengers inbound from Commonwealth territories in the Caribbean included those answering calls for work, ex-servicemen and women, and children – many of whom travelled on their parents' passports. He has analysed the original mayday signals, and the reports from rescue vessels, and from the Royal Navy destroyer that had been towing her when she finally slipped beneath the waves. On June 24th there will be an online consultation, open to the public. Since every extra day spent at sea adds to the mission cost, Mearns needs to locate wrecks as swiftly as possible. The ship itself now lies 2,800 metres down at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea, 23 nautical miles off the coast of Algeria. This meant Windrush children who had travelled to the UK under the passports of their parents – some of whom who had lived in Britain for upwards of 50 years – were challenged to prove their immigration status was legal. The ship has come to symbolise the arrival in Britain of a new wave of cultural diversity now generations old. DAILY HERALD ARCHIVE/GETTY. Now, 70 years and three to four generations later, the legacy of those who arrived on the Windrush and the ships that followed is being rightly remembered – albeit in a way which calls into question how much their presence, sacrifices and contributions are valued in Britain. 1954 1948 1930 The Empire Windrush – Steve Othen’s Story The SS Empire Windrush, a ship that will live in infamy in the minds of European nationalists, arrived in London from Jamaica in June 1948. But for many of the arrivals on the Empire Windrush that June – and the tens of thousands who arrived from Commonwealth territories all over the world by other means between 1948 and 1973 â€“ the environment they arrived into wasn't the welcome they had hoped for. “The moment you find a wreck is exhilarating,” he says. Mearns is in his office in the Sussex town of Midhurst, riffling through a green lever-arch file containing all his research on the Empire Windrush. The British troopship HMT Empire Windrush anchored at Tilbury Docks, Essex, on 21 June 1948 carrying hundreds of passengers from the Caribbean hoping for a new life in Britain - … Introduction. Home > Forums > Lost Contact & Research > Ship Research > Empire Windrush Welcome Welcome to Ships Nostalgia, the world's greatest online community for people worldwide with an interest in ships and shipping. Her passengers included recovering wounded United Nations veterans of the Korean War, some soldiers from the Duke of Wellington's Regiment wounded at the Third Battle of the Hook in May 1953. She called at Kure and was to sail to the United Kingdom, calling at Hong Kong, Singapore, Colombo, Aden and Port Said. Embed from Getty Images The Empire Windrush's voyage from the Caribbean to Tilbury took place in 1948. Black history is still largely ignored, 70 years after Empire Windrush reached Britain. One of Empire Windrush’s most famous journeys was in 1948. Then, as the Second World War began to rock Europe, its festive colours were repainted grey, and the Monte Rosa became a ship of war. HMT Empire Windrush, originally MV Monte Rosa, was a passenger liner and cruise ship launched in Germany in 1930. New start: The Windrush After its historic voyage from Kingston, Jamaica to London carrying the first wave of Windrush immigrants, the Empire Windrush continued to operate in service for the Ministry of Transport typically carrying military personnel and their families back to the UK from the far east. The consequences wrecked lives. This became known as the Windrush scandal. The after compressor has become the most precious thing in the ship”. Background . Click here to go to the forums home page and find out … “Passion as opposed to profit,” he says. And not all of these mostly elderly people could. In between all these are dozens of research files and books on maritime history and ocean science. Empire Windrush : fifty years of writing about Black Britain. The forward compressor blew up, and it was debatable whether we would have to lay up at Colombo for a while. In this most famous image of the ship â€“ at the top of this article – the anchor is clearly visible. It’s a statistical process based on something called Bayesian search theory, and it can mean the difference between a few days or many weeks of searching. At that time, there were no immigration restrictions for citizens of one part of the British Empire moving to another part. The campaign, which began on Windrush Day (22 June) last year at Brixton’s Black Cultural Archives (BCA), aims to find the wreck of the Empire Windrush where she sank in the Mediterranean and recover her stern anchor. Believe it or not, very few of the migrants intended to stay in Britain for more than a few years. On his walls are paintings and photos of the more famous wrecks he has located, as well as industry awards and Guinness World Records certificates (deepest wreck found, deepest cargo salvage, deepest live internet broadcast, oldest astrolabe and oldest shipwreck bell discovered). This unpleasant-looking character is called the Squander Bug, and it was created during the Second World War by artist Phillip Boydell, an employee of the National Savings Committee. By the end of the war the Monte Rosa had become a hospital ship, and was seized by the Royal Navy at Kiel on the north German coast. Just like seeing the sonar image of a shipwreck popping up on your screen.”. In 1954 it caught fire while en route to the UK, and – after all but four of those aboard had been rescued – it sank. A ship, and an important part of the history of multi-racialism in the United Kingdom. A new report has revealed 'profound institutional failure' in the government's handling of the affair. These too were bound for a new life in Britain under Churchill's Polish Resettlement Act, which acknowledged the contribution of Polish soldiers and intelligence to the Allied war effort. Empire Windrush set off from Yokohama, Japan, in February 1954 on what proved to be her final voyage. An advert had appeared in a Jamaican newspaper offering cheap transport on the ship for anybody who wanted to come and work in the UK. And what's more, it's completely FREE. She was owned and operated by the German shipping line Hamburg Süd in the 1930s under the name Monte Rosa.During World War II she was operated by the German navy as a troopship.At the end of the war, she was taken by the United Kingdom Government as a prize of war and renamed … Lexington Found in Coral Sea, Secrets and spies: Behind the doors of the UK's most enigmatic government agency, NatGeo Explorer Classroom: exploring coastlines with Beverly Goodman, May 14th @ 7pm, 'Too tough to die' shipwreck discovered in Pacific, Brian Skerry / National Geographic Image Collection, came to symbolise the scandalous way in which the government treated, unable to prove legitimate UK citizenship in later life, Polish soldiers and intelligence to the Allied war effor, forced to accept jobs well below the entitlement of their qualifications, recruiting proactively and directly from the Caribbean, 1971 had entitled any Commonwealth citizen currently living in Britain indefinite leave to remain, emerged the disembarkation cards of thousands of migrants from the 1950s and 1960s, 2020 independent report into the scandal spanning 275 pages, who had lived in the UK lawfully for decades were made to feel like criminals, Patrick Vernon, who was a child of the Windrush generation, re-examining their public monuments and statues, National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, We use acoustics because sound propagates through water a long distance, Thrilling Underwater Shipwrecks to See Around the World, A Closer Look at the Wreckage of the Titanic, aware of how sensitive the mission would be. (PA) Vernon, who successfully led the campaign that established 22 June as Windrush Day – a national day acknowledging the migrant contribution to UK society – said: “I thought, if we are going to have a memorial, why not get the anchor of the ship to be a memorial. For HMS Hood, Mearns had 630 square nautical miles to cover; for HMAS Sydney it was over 1,750. However, Mearns is always prepared for long, sometimes queasy days at sea, staring at a sonar screen, his sleep severely rationed. The room is an office-cum-library-cum-museum. But that moment of discovery, when all the research and hard work finally come to fruition, more than compensates for any hardship. “If the anchor was a centrepiece of a monument somewhere in the UK, it would be a touchstone for people to visit and literally touch, connecting themselves to that ship and the symbolism of the first wave of Windrush immigrants.”. A marine scientist and sonar specialist by trade, he has discovered 25 shipwrecks and boasts a 90 per cent success rate. During the 1930s, she operated as a German cruise ship under the name Monte Rosa.During World War II, she was operated by the German navy as a troopship.She was acquired by the United Kingdom as a prize of war at the end of the war and renamed Empire Windrush. The wreck of the Empire Windrush. The wreck still lies 2600 metres below the sea. With the wreck of the ship – and the anchors – being. You spend years training for it, and it’s all encapsulated in that split-second when you cross the finish tape. Muralising the Empire Windrush on a wall in Bristol. Those affected belong to the “Windrush generation,” named for the ship Empire Windrush, which in 1948 brought hundreds of Caribbean immigrants to Britain. These privations included access to healthcare, legal representation, or housing. As part of Germany's Hamburg Sud line, its first years saw it give many Germans trans-Atlantic passage to a new life in South America, escaping the economic depression in their homeland. We had a scare the other day. The vessel later came to symbolise the scandalous way in which the government treated many of the so-called Windrush generation – who celebrate a day of recognition on June 22. A process called reverse drift analysis allows him to analyse the position of wreck debris or life-rafts, for example, and calculate where the ship actually sank beneath the waves. They are named after the Empire Windrush, a cruise ship which brought one of the first large groups of West Indian immigrants to the United Kingdom in 1948. They are named after the Empire Windrush, a cruise ship which brought one of the first large groups of West Indian immigrants to the United Kingdom in 1948. WHEN the passenger liner HMT Empire Windrush docked at Port of Tilbury on the River Thames in June 1948 with hundreds of Caribbean immigrants aboard, it was a key moment in the establishment of multicultural Britain. DAILY HERALD ARCHIVE/GETTY. Any efforts to find the Endurance, however, would be severely hampered by the constantly moving pack ice above its last known location. Meet The Squander Bug. “It wasn’t uncommon to be at sea for 60 days living in a small, smelly space with five other blokes, sleeping on bunks three-high, with diesel fumes, low food quality, working 12 hours on and 12 hours off, without safety standards.”. Ces immigrés sont ceux de la "génération Windrush", du nom de l'Empire-Windrush, l'un des premiers bateaux desquels ils ont débarqué depuis la Jamaïque en 1948. Second World War. Sailed to the shipyards of Glasgow, it was re-fitted as a British troop transport â€“ and given the name that would resonate through history. There’s a lot of adrenalin involved. HMT Empire Windrush, originally MV Monte Rosa, was a passenger liner and cruise ship launched in Germany in 1930. SV survivors walking towards 'Triumph'. After losing so many soldiers and young men, Britain had a serious shortage of labourers. Damn things keep breaking down.” On October 30, Mr Pendleton wrote: I have never known so many things to go wrong with one’’ There will be fun and games on the home trip.”. They have helped to shape British social, cultural and political life. In an era when Britons are re-examining their public monuments and statues, it would have added poignancy. Tick one. The "Empire Windrush" was a twin screw motor ship built in 1930 by Blohm & Voss in Hamburg, and came under British ownership and registry in 1947, and was thereafter employed as a troop ship. The Windrush, with just 36 square nautical miles should be a cinch by comparison. HMT Empire Windrush arrives at the Port of Tilbury on the River Thames on 22 June, 1948. The SS Empire Windrush arrived at Tilbury docks on 22 June 1948 carrying passengers from the Caribbean. Visible just right of centre is the anchor a team of campaigners and scientists hope to raise from the ship – which sank in 1954 – as a monument to the generation it helped establish in Britain. HMT Empire Windrush, originally MV Monte Rosa, was a passenger liner and cruise ship launched in Germany in 1930. The Empire Windrush This day in March 1954. Whether you are crew, ex-crew, ship enthusiasts or cruisers, this is the forum for you. Empire Windrush (ex-Monte Rosa) article written by Mike Walsh. Most critical is the need for members and relatives of the Windrush generation to give their blessing. However, during the Second World War, she was used as a troopship. Efforts are under way to find the wreck of the Empire Windrush, which sank in the Mediterranean in 1954. Despite their right to remain, due to immigration law tightening and the government destroying the landing cards of passengers in 2010 many who arrived as part of the first wave were unable to prove legitimate UK citizenship in later life. Although he’s sure of her location in the Mediterranean, and confident he can cut free and raise the anchor, he knows that funding for the estimated £1.5 to £2.5 million project will be a challenge. Among them is Patrick Vernon, who was a child of the Windrush generation, maritime archaeologist Jessica Berry, and shipwreck hunter David Mearns. The Empire Windrush, a passenger liner and cruise ship claimed by the British Government following WWII, was responsible for bringing a group of settlers across the Atlantic to London. Used as a troop carrier, it brought German ground forces to Scandinavia, at one point supporting and resupplying the infamous battleship Tirpitz – Hitler's ‘beast’ â€“ as it strafed the Norwegian coast to deter Allied attacks. (PA) Vernon, who successfully led the campaign that established 22 June as Windrush Day – a national day acknowledging the migrant contribution to UK society – said: “I thought, if we are going to have a memorial, why not get the anchor of the ship to be a memorial. Some even paid for the migrants' fares, usually recouped through wages. SV pan, survivors walking towards triumph. A 2020 independent report into the scandal spanning 275 pages revealed the cause lay in 'profound institutional failure' – and that people of the Windrush generation â€˜who had lived in the UK lawfully for decades were made to feel like criminals.’. A replica of the deck of the Empire Windrush created as part of the Windrush Garden at Chelsea Flower Show in 2018. And I just had to do it. She was operated as a German cruise ship under the name Monte Rosa in the 1930s, and as a German navy troopship during World War II.At the end of the war, she was acquired by the United Kingdom Government as a prize of war and renamed the Empire Windrush. In five letters written to his father before the troopship Empire Windrush was burnt out, the ship’s eighth engineer expressed anxiety about her condition. The ship normally cruises up and down in a straight line, towing the sonar device (or towfish, as it’s known) at the end of a long cable. The campaign, which began on Windrush Day (22 June) last year at Brixton’s Black Cultural Archives (BCA), aims to find the wreck of the Empire Windrush where she sank in the Mediterranean and recover her stern anchor. He requires a sturdy ship, specialist team members, and acoustic searching devices such as side-scan sonars or multi-beam echo sounders. 1930 1948 1954 1945 3. Uploaded on behalf of John Swinnen. While searching for HMAS Sydney and HSK Kormoran off the coast of Australia, for example, he decoded a dictionary that the captain of the latter had used while in prison to secretly document the original sea battle. Uploaded on behalf of John Swinnen. According to Paul Arnott in his book Windrush: A Ship Through Time, the vessel's trajectory turned into darker waters during the war years. The Evening Standard of June 21 1948 carried a story and image relating to the Empire Windrush's arrival in Britain under the headline 'Welcome Home.' “In the grand scheme of shipwrecks, the position is very good,” Mearns says. The British Government tried to encourage members of the British Empire to come and work in the UK. This is for their benefit, but they have to want it,” he says, aware of how sensitive the mission would be. Monument for the Windrush Generation. David Mearns indicates the anchor on the cover of a book about the Empire Windrush. My confidence level is high.”. When it comes to symbols of migration, few conveyances have been quite so mythologised as the Empire Windrush – a remarkable turn of fortune given the ship's former duties. ... I’m a nervous wreck.” • The Windrush … The communities born from this wave of migrants, and their influence on the arts, education and culture has in the years since been unanimously hailed as a watershed moment in the diversification of British culture. Using his training in oceanography, he hunts for clues in weather reports, ocean currents, and the positions, speeds and bearings of ships at the time they are damaged. It was originally used as a cruise ship and passenger liner. (“We use acoustics because sound propagates through water a long distance,” he explains.) “You cannot help but react in a spontaneous way. the burned-out hulk of empire windrush taken in tow bay-class anti-aircraft frigate hms enard bay of royal navy s mediterranean fleet, 32 miles northwest of cape caxine. HMT Empire Windrush arrives at the Port of Tilbury on the River Thames on 22 June, 1948. Her gross tonnage was 14,651; she was 501 feet in length, 65.7 feet in breadth and 37.8 feet in depth. In 1948, after losing so many soldiers and young men in the war, Britain had a serious shortage of workers. Originally from New Jersey, in the United States, Mearns came to Britain 25 years ago and took over ownership of Blue Water Recoveries in late 2008. “It’s the families who should decide. Some who had lived in Britain legally for most of their lives lost jobs, their homes â€“ or faced deportation back to countries they had no memory of. Having spent much of his career on lucrative salvage projects and accident investigations, he’s now in a position where he can donate his services pro bono if, as is the case with the Empire Windrush, he feels it’s a worthwhile cause. Richard Cavendish | Published in History Today Volume 48 Issue 6 June 1998. 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